# History: BPFK Section: Intervals

## cmavo bi'i (BIhI)

### Proposed Definition

Non-logical interval connective. Joins two values into an unordered interval between the two values.

• between

### Usage Examples

mi sanli la .drestyn. bi'i la .frankfurt.
I stand between Dresden and Frankfurt.

### Notes

The order of the connected values does not matter.

## cmavo bi'o (BIhI)

### Proposed Definition

Non-logical interval connective. Joins two values into an ordered interval.

• from ... to

### Usage Examples

di'e pagbu la'elu lei xelso ranmi li'u pefi'e la nikos.tsiforos. noi xelso xamfinti je pilno be le no'e jikri'i skutra bei lenu larsku zi'ene la 1900nan bi'o la 1970nan
"This is part of "Greek Myths" by Nikos Tsiforos, a Greek humorist and slang devotee from 1900 to 1970."

mi ca'o la 1999nan. bi'o la 2001nan. se jibri vi le merko
"From 1999 to 2001 I had a job in America."

tcacyselsku fa lu la mrfis. bi'o la MANti,on li'u noi se smuni lu le cmana bi'o le xamsi li'u
"The saying is 'From Murphy to Manteo', which means 'From the mountain to the sea'."

## cmavo mi'i (BIhI)

### Proposed Definition

center-range — non-logical interval connective: ordered components: ... center, ... range surrounding center --

### Usage Examples

le bamjakne ba darxi la moskov. mi'i lo ki'otre be li panono
"The missile will hit within 100 kilometers of Moscow."

le teilr. zei sujypoi pe lo dugri fancu cu jbize'a ve'a li pa ga'omi'i pa
"The Taylor series of the logarithm function converges within 1 of 1, closed at the center."

## cmavo ga'o (GAhO)

### Proposed Definition

Inclusive interval. When used before bi'o or bi'i, it indicates that the beginning of the interval is closed. When used after bi'o or bi'i, it indicates that the end of the interval is closed. When used before mi'i, it indicates that the center of the interval is closed. When used after mi'i, it indicates that the outside of the interval is closed.

### Usage Examples

.u'i mi pu zi krixa le ka gerku ga'o le mi mlatu

Yay, I just yelled out like a dog or my cat.

(I have no idea if this is correct, this is the only usage I could find.)

## cmavo ke'i (GAhO)

### Proposed Definition

exclusive interval — open interval bracket marker; modifies intervals in non-logical connectives; exclude boundaries --

### Usage Examples

mi ciska lu abu sy li'u le xy ke'i bi'i ke'i le obu

ke'i lenu mi cilre fo la velcli befi la lojban. bei loi co'a cilre cu mulno .ije mi ca'oca troci lenu mi jimpe la lojban.

mi citka lo ke clani je desku je pelxu ke'i cidja

(Unable to translate! -Lindar)

## Proposed grammar changes

In the PEG grammar, replace the line

joik <- SE-clause? JOI-clause NAI-clause? / interval / GAhO-clause interval GAhO-clause

with the line

joik <- SE-clause? JOI-clause NAI-clause? / interval / GAhO-clause interval / interval GAhO-clause / GAhO-clause interval GAhO-clause

A joik cannot be immediately followed by another joik, so a sequence "BIhI GAhO BIhI" cannot occur, so determining to which BIhI a GAhO belongs does not depend on the order in this line.

## General Section Notes

BIhI may be used with only one GAhO next to it; this indicates that one end of the interval is closed or open, but says nothing about the other end. The Taylor series mentioned above diverges at 0, but converges at all other points on the boundary of the disk of convergence; thus the outside is neither closed nor open.

The definition of GAhO with mi'i differs from that in CLL, but there appears to be no prior usage of GAhO with mi'i.

Allowing BIhI with only one GAhO is a change in the grammar. Since GAhO is used only with BIhI, and no GAhO BIhI GAhO may be followed immediately by another GAhO BIhI GAhO, this introduces no new ambiguity.

### Interval or Point?

There is a question whether abu bi'i by denotes the interval a..b or some point in the interval. Here are some examples, showing which way it has been used:

lo kanla be lo remna cu viska loi gusni poi boxna folo navytre beli 400 bi'i li 800
"The human eye can see light of wavelength between 400 and 800 nanometers."

Wikipedia [[gusni]]

unclear

le trucerda be fi ty. ba'orgau le se sornaitru la madjarorsag. bi'i la jugygug.
"His successors expanded the empire from Hungary to China."

Wikipedia [[tcingis xan]]

interval

le critu dorduncte cu cabna le 22 bi'i 24 moi be le xlima'i
"The autumnal equinox occurs between the 22nd and the 24th of September."

Wikipedia [[dorduncte]]

point

pamoi mitre fo piki'oki'opa lo jedji'o bi'i lo mijycukla
"The first standard for the meter was one ten-millionth of the distance between the pole and the equator."

Wikipedia [[treci'e]]

interval

la sangug. stici la spetsias. bi'i la riminis.
"Spain is west of the La Spezia-Rimini line."

Wikipedia [[sanban]]

interval

pa jijyjutsi po'u la'o ly. Toona .ly. kuspe lo norgla jugygu'e bi'i lo nanstuna sralygu'e
"One genus, Toona, ranges from temperate China to southeast Australia."

Wikipedia [[spatrmeliace]]

interval

la'aru'e lo skalduna cu stali la .auskalerik ca'o le nu lo remna be la kromanion. cu basti lo remna be la neANdertal. kei bi'o le cabna
"Possibly, Basques have been in Basque Country from the time Cro-Magnon Man replaced Neanderthal Man until now."

Wikipedia [[skalduna]]

interval

srana lo tolci'o glibau noi pu renvi de'i li ji'i 0450 bi'o ji'i 1066

ko'e cu se banta'a co cabna lo tolci'o berdo'obau noi jibni ko'e lo ka ckini zi'e noi bangu lai vikingr. poi ke'a lo gligu'e de'i li 0790 bi'o ji'i 1040 gunta ce'o co'arxabju
"It was spoken at the same time as Old Norse, which is closely related and was spoken by the Vikings, who from 790 to 1040 attacked and then occupied England."

srana lo midju glibau noi pu renvi de'i li ji'i 1066 bi'o ji'i 1500

lo gligu'e cu jamna lo fasygu'e soi vo'a vo'e de'i li 1202 bi'o 1214
"England warred France and vice versa from 1202 to 1214."

srana lo purci ke cabna glibau noi pu renvi de'i li ji'i 1500 bi'o ji'i 1650

lo glico vlasrocku pe la oksford ge'u noi ke mulno je tcilykai ke'e pe'a pixra be ro glico valsi be ze'u lo ri citri cu se finti de'i li 1858 bi'o 1928
"The Oxford English Dictionary, a complete and detailed picture of all English words throughout their history, was authored from 1858 to 1928."

Wikipedia [[citri lo glibau]]

all intervals

by fy nitcu lo remna poi milxe bi'o banli to pa mai toi certu la lojban
"BF needs people who are slightly to greatly (firstly) expert in Lojban."

camgusmis

point

## History

Information Version
Fri 22 of Aug, 2014 10:24 GMT Ilmen from 95.210.209.219 Adding {} to word links.
Mon 09 of Jun, 2014 21:24 GMT selpa'i from 84.175.65.83 Added poll
Mon 09 of Jun, 2014 21:20 GMT selpa'i from 84.175.65.83
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Mon 09 of Jun, 2014 21:08 GMT selpa'i from 84.175.65.83 Added clearer examples
Mon 09 of Jun, 2014 21:04 GMT selpa'i from 84.175.65.83
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Mon 09 of Jun, 2014 20:25 GMT selpa'i from 84.175.65.83
Sun 08 of Jun, 2014 19:29 GMT mukti from 216.194.27.154
Fri 15 of Oct, 2010 11:21 GMT lindarthebard from 32.174.46.157
Wed 08 of Sep, 2010 07:46 GMT eyeonus from 69.92.254.55
Thu 24 of May, 2007 14:36 GMT PierreAbbat from 166.82.175.165 PEG grammar change
Thu 19 of Jan, 2006 16:37 GMT PierreAbbat from 166.82.175.165 interval or point?
Thu 07 of Jul, 2005 13:04 GMT PierreAbbat from 216.189.113.165 mi'i examples, notes, impact
Thu 07 of Jul, 2005 09:23 GMT PierreAbbat from 216.189.113.165 add examples
Wed 17 of Nov, 2004 02:42 GMT rlpowell from 64.81.49.171