History: BPFK Section: gadri

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Proposed definitions

 

lo
Generic article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, into a sumti. The resulting expression refers generically to any individual or group that fits as the first argument of the selbri. An outer quantifier can be used to quantify over instances of the generic individual or, if an explicit inner quantifier is given, over instances of a group. An inner quantifier can be used to indicate the cardinality of the group. When an outer quantifier is used without an inner quantifier, lo can be omitted.

ko'a lebna lo xanlai pe lo cmananba gi'e dunda ciboi cy mi
He grabbed a handful of biscuits and gave me three.

ca ro nu mi rere'u catlu lo skina kei mi cpacu ro lo se cusku poi mi na cpacu ca lo pamoi
Every time I see a movie for the second time I get all this dialogue that I missed the first time.

ei lo verba cu mutce fraxu lo makcu prenu
Children should show great forbearance toward grown-up people.

ku'i uinai mi na viska lo lanme pa'o lo bitmu be fo lo tanxe i ju'ocu'i mi milxe simsa lo makcu prenu
But I, alas, do not see sheep through the walls of boxes. Perhaps I am a little like the grown-ups.

ca lo nicte lo cinfo cu kalte lo cidja
At night lions hunt for food.

lo pa pixra cu se vamji lo ki'o valsi
One picture is worth a thousand words.

de'i li 1960 lo pare sovda cu fepni li 42
In 1960 a dozen eggs cost 42 cents.

cimai lo ctuca cu fendi lo selctu mu lo vo tadni
Step 3: The teacher will divide the class into five groups of four students.

lo bidjylinsi pe lo ze seldri cu se pagbu ze lo ze bidju e ji'a ci bidju e lo kucysni
The Rosary of the Seven Sorrows consists of seven groups of seven beads, with three additional beads and a Crucifix.

o'i mu (lo) xagji sofybakni cu zvati le purdi
Caution! There are five hungry Soviet cows in the garden.

lo sanli darxi bo dakli cu culno lo djacu onai lo canre to lo djacu cu pukmau ki'u lo nu slilu tolcando toi gi'e bunda li ji'i 270
Standing punching bags are filled with water or sand - water being preferable because of the wave-motion created - and weigh about 270lbs.

lo pavyseljirna cu ranmi danlu gi'e simlu lo ka ge ce'u xirma gi lo pa jirna cu cpana lo mebri be ce'u
Unicorns are mythical creatures that look like a horse with a horn coming out of their foreheads.

le
Specific article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, into a sumti. The resulting expression refers specifically to an individual or group that the speaker has in mind and which the speaker describes as fitting the first argument of the selbri. An outer quantifier can be used to quantify over members of the group. An inner quantifier can be used to indicate the cardinality of the group.

le palta ba'o porpi i ma gasnu i xu le gerku cu go'i
The dish is broken. Who did it? Was it the dog?

ko punji le sicni ja'e lo porsi be lo vamrai bi'o lo vamtolrai
Put the coins in order from greatest to least value.

ci le bi ctuca cu ninmu
Three of the eight teachers are women.

le va ninmu cu mutce melbi iku'i ca'a nanmu gi'e nelci lo nu ninmu dasni
That woman is very beautiful, but she's actually a man who likes to dress as a woman.

la
Name article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, or a cmevla into a sumti. The resulting expression refers specifically to an individual or group that the speaker has in mind and which the speaker names with the selbri or cmevla. An outer quantifier can be used to quantify over members of the group. An inner quantifier can be used in the case of a selbri as part of the name.

ma'i la midju terdi la sadam na sai me la sauron
In Middle Earth-terms, Saddam is by no means a 'Sauron'.

la ci bakni ku po'u lo gusta pe la kaiapois cu banli ge lo ka vanbi gi lo ka cidja
The Three Cows Restaurant in Kaiapoi is a wonderful place, both atmosphere and food-wise.

--------

lo'i
Generic set article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, into a sumti. The resulting expression refers to a generic set of individuals that fit the first argument of the selbri. An outer quantifier can be used to quantify over instances of such sets. An inner quantifier can be used to indicate the cardinality of the sets.

ma cnano lo junta lo'i cifnu poi cazi jbena
What is the normal weight of a baby at childbirth?

le'i
Specific set article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, into a sumti. The resulting expression refers specifically to the set of individuals that the speaker has in mind and describes as fitting the first argument of the selbri. An outer quantifier can be used to indicate a subset of that cardinality (possibly as a fraction of the cardinality of the set). An inner quantifier can be used to indicate the cardinality of the set.

ro le verba pu cuxna pa karda le'i cnita selcra
Each child chose a card from the face-down collection.

la'i
Name set article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, or a cmevla into a sumti. The resulting expression refers specifically to the set of individuals that the speaker has in mind and names with the selbri or cmevla. An outer quantifier can be used to indicate a subset of that cardinality (possibly as a fraction of the cardinality of the set). An inner quantifier can be used in the case of a selbri as part of the name.

doi turni do so'i da na fadni la'i kenedis ma'i lo jecra'a
Governor, in many respects, you're not a typical Kennedy politically.

loi
Generic mass article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, into a sumti. The resulting expression refers generically to a group of individuals that fit the first argument of the selbri and which collectively satisfy the predicate for which the sumti is an argument. An outer quantifier can be used to quantify over instances of such a group. An inner quantifier can be used to indicate the cardinality of the group.

loi litru ti jmaji lo ro pagbu be le terdi
Tourists gather here from all over the world.

lei
Specific mass article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, into a sumti. The resulting expression refers specifically to a group of individuals that the speaker has in mind and describes as fitting the first argument of the selbri and which collectively satisfy the predicate for which the sumti is an argument. An outer quantifier can be used to indicate a subgroup of that cardinality (possibly as a fraction of the cardinality of the group). An inner quantifier can be used to indicate the cardinality of the group.

lei brazo cu jinga fi lei dotco la kabri
The Brazilians beat the Germans for the Cup.

lai
Name mass article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, or a cmevla into a sumti. The resulting expression refers specifically to a group of individuals that the speaker has in mind and names with the selbri or cmevla and which collectively satisfy the predicate for which the sumti is an argument. An outer quantifier can be used to indicate a subgroup of that cardinality (possibly as a fraction of the cardinality of the group). An inner quantifier can be used in the case of a selbri as part of the name.

ta melbi pixra lai simpson
That's a nice photograph of the Simpsons.

lo'e
Typical article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, into a sumti. The resulting expression indicates that the individuals or groups that satisfy the selbri typically also satisfy the predicate for which the sumti is an argument. An outer quantifier does not have a clear meaning with this gadri. An inner quantifier can be used to indicate the cardinality of the group.

lo'e glipre cu xabju le fi'ortu'a na.e le gligugde
The typical English person dwells not in Africa but in England.

le'e
Stereotypical article. It converts a selbri, selecting its first argument, into a sumti. The resulting expression indicates that the individuals or groups that the speaker describes with the selbri typically satisfy, from the point of view of the speaker, the predicate for which the sumti is an argument. An outer quantifier does not have a clear meaning with this gadri. An inner quantifier can be used to indicate the cardinality of the group.

le'e xelso merko cu gusta ponse
Lots of Greek-Americans own restaurants.

Formal definitions

 

PA broda PA da poi ke'a broda
lo broda zo'e noi ke'a broda
le broda zo'e noi mi ke'a do skicu lo ka ce'u broda
la broda zo'e noi zo broda cmene ke'a mi
PA lo broda PA mupli be lo broda
PA le broda PA cmima be le broda
PA la broda PA cmima be la broda
lo PA broda lo PAmei be fi lo broda e no lo na broda
le PA broda le PAmei be fi lo broda e no lo na broda
la PA broda zo'e noi lu PA broda li'u cmene ke'a mi
PA1 lo PA2 broda PA1 mupli be lo PA2 broda
PA1 le PA2 broda PA1 cmima be le PA2 broda
PA1 la PA2 broda PA1 cmima be la PA2 broda
lo'i broda lo cmaci selcmi be lo broda e no lo na broda
le'i broda lo cmaci selcmi be ro le broda e no lo na cmima be le broda
la'i broda lo cmaci selcmi be ro la broda e no lo na cmima be la broda
PA lo'i broda PA cmaci selcmi be lo broda e no lo na broda
PA le'i broda lo cmaci selcmi be PA le broda e no lo na cmima be le broda
PA la'i broda lo cmaci selcmi be PA la broda e no lo na cmima be la broda
lo'i PA broda lo cmaci selcmi be PA broda e no lo na broda
le'i PA broda lo cmaci selcmi be ro le PA broda e no lo na cmima be le PA broda
la'i PA broda lo cmaci selcmi be ro la PA broda e no lo na cmima be la PA broda
PA1 lo'i PA2 broda PA1 cmaci selcmi be PA2 broda e no lo na broda
PA1 le'i PA2 broda lo cmaci selcmi be PA1 le PA2 broda e no lo na cmima be le PA2 broda
PA1 la'i PA2 broda lo cmaci selcmi be PA1 la PA2 broda e no lo na cmima be la PA2 broda
loi broda cu brode lo broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
lei broda cu brode le broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
lai broda cu brode la broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
PA loi broda cu brode PA lo broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
PA lei broda cu brode lo PA le broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
PA lai broda cu brode lo PA la broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
loi PA broda cu brode lo PA broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
lei PA broda cu brode le PA broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
lai PA broda cu brode la PA broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
PA1 loi PA2 broda cu brode PA1 lo PA2 broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
PA1 lei PA2 broda cu brode lo PA1 le PA2 broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
PA1 lai PA2 broda cu brode lo PA1 la PA2 broda cu kansi'u lo ka ce'u brode
lo'e broda cu brode lo ka ce'u brode cu kampu so'e lo'i ro broda
le'e broda cu brode lo ka ce'u brode cu kampu so'e le'i broda ma'i mi
lo'e PA broda lo'e PAmei be fi lo broda e no lo na broda
le'e PA broda le'e PAmei be fi lo broda e no lo na broda

 

Summary

 

CmavoArticleCmevlaIn-mindKey phraseOuter quantifierInner quantifierDefaults
loGenericNoirrelevantfitsover instancescardinality of groupnone
leSpecificNoYesdescribed asover memberscardinality of groupnone
laNameYesYesnamed withover memberspart of the namenone
lo'iGeneric setNoirrelevanthas only members that fitover instancescardinality of setnone
le'iSpecific setNoYeshas only members described asselects subsetcardinality of setnone
la'iName setYesYeshas only members named withselects subsetpart of the namenone
loiGeneric massNoirrelevantfit and collectively satisfyover instancescardinality of groupnone
leiSpecific massNoYesdescribed as and collectively satisfyselects subgroupcardinality of groupnone
laiName massYesYesnamed with and collectively satisfyselects subgrouppart of the namenone
lo'eTypicalNoirrelevantthose that fit typically satisfyunclearcardinality of groupnone
le'eStereotypicalNoYesthose described as are said to typically satisfyunclearcardinality of groupnone

changes from CLL are shown in red

Notes

 

 

  • The main change from the traditional prescription is in the interpretation of the inner quantifier for the lo-series. This does not introduce much of a negative impact on usage because an explicit inner quantifier as the cardinality of the whole set of existing broda is hardly ever usable.

 

  • Default quantifiers are abolished from these definitions, so that the expressions without an explicit outer quantifier are constants, i.e. they are not quantified expressions. This means, for example, that changing the order in which the constant term appears with respect to a negation or with respect to a quantified term will not change the meaning of the sentence. A constant is something that always keeps the same referent. {lo broda} always refers to brodas. In {mu da poi broda zo'u da brode}, "da" is a variable, because it takes values from the set of all things that broda. Anything with a quantifier in front takes values from the set of things over which the quantifier runs.

 

  • CLL says about default quantifiers:
    There are rules for each of the 11 descriptors specifying what the implicit values for the inner and outer quantifiers are. They are meant to provide sensible default values when context is absent, not necessarily to prescribe hard and fast rules. The following table lists the implicit values:
    The proposed definitions take the view that the most sensible default value when no explicit quantification is given is no quantification at all.

 

  • To refer to substances, lo/le/la without any quantifier are appropriate. The number {tu'o} could be used as inner quantifier to emphasize that no cardinality applies.

le nanmu cu se snuti ija'ebo lo tu'o gerku cu kuspe le klaji
The guy had an accident and there was dog all over the road.

  • A substance can also be seen as made up of component parts, and this can even be true in a physical sense: the water in a puddle of rain got there drop by drop. If you look from far enough away, you can't tell whether the "sailor all over the deck" is literally goo, or just an aggregation of sailors standing still. So a substance may be treated as a group made up of individuals without worrying about which individuals they are.

 

  • The examples for lo'e and le'e were taken from CLL.

 

  • It has been proposed that lo'e se with the word for a kind of organism refers to the taxon containing all members of the kind and no others, if that exists. So lo'e se guzme means the family Cucurbitaceae, while lo se guzme can be Cucumis, Sicyos, Luffa, or any of several others. lo'e se jesymabru, however, has no clear meaning, as jesymabru can refer to both spiny anteaters and hedgehogs.

 

Impact

 

  • Positive impact: Some usages that make little sense with {lo} = {su'o} become validated. Examples:

 
bilga lenu jdice lenu roroi pilno lo mokla tirxe (to zoigy. velar gy. toi) jonai crane (to zoigy. alveolar gy. toi)
tavla fi le tutra pe le terdi

le cmana lo cidja ba claxu
In the mountains there is no food.
lapoi pelxu ku'o trajynobli

le dargu pe lo xamgu bangu cu kargu
The road of the good language is costly.
lapoi pelxu ku'o trajynobli

la jyryr. tolkien. cu te cukta la djine turni (to la'o gy Lord of the Rings gy toi) .e le so'omoi be lo xanri munje lisri ca le lampru na'acto
tenguar

  • Negative impact: It is conceivable that some usages become more vague than intended if the default quantifiers played an important role in some expression, such as interactions between su'o and na, but it is hard to determine. If someone finds examples where this happens please report them.

 

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