BPFK Section: Discursives

Prior Usage and Discussion

da'i as an intensional marker

It has been suggested (Jboske thread(external link)) that da'i be used as a marker of intensionality (as opposed to the default Lojban way of extensional reference). The new construal of lo as entailing intensionality makes this position irrelevant today.

da'i as a counterfactual marker

The CLL refers to da'i and da'i nai as words that can disambiguate between a factual and a counterfactual reading of a sentence. Hence, it is implied that a sentence that is intended as counterfactual, need not be marked. The only example of da'i in CLL is one that puts da'i in the antecedent of an implication.

ganai da'i do viska le mi citno mensi gi ju'o do djuno le du'u ri pazvau

If you were to see my younger sister, you would certainly know she is pregnant.

The semantics of this are more or less transparent: da'i points out a potential counterfactuality of the clause beginning with "ga nai".

da'i is generally conceived of as a rough equivalent to the subjunctive in natural languages. John Parks-Clifford recognises da'i as a de facto antecedent marker in subjunctive clauses.

John Cowan has criticised this viewpoint, referring to it as "mere attitudinal wafflings". (ref(external link))

The scope of da'i

It is generally agreed that da'i can affect the factuality of sub-clauses. (ref(external link)) In other words, no evidence can be found of proponents of the view that insertion of da'i somewhere in the non-first position of the bridi renders the entire bridi non-factual.

da'i is a UI, which means that it follows the same interpretive convention as other UI: it affects the entire sentence if it is the first word; otherwise, it affects the word immediately to the left, and if that word is the head of a clause, the entire clause is affected.


da'i as a marker of a hypothetical antecedent

ru'a ganai da'i do ba citka lo smani gi ri na jmive

Presumably, if you were to eat a monkey, it would not be alive.

da'i as a marker of a hypothetical consequent (erroneous)

i da'i le ve xrani cu ba dukse

[If that were to happen], the damage would be too great.

.i bai le nu mi fanva kei mi cu da'i cusku zo pagbu .enai zo porpi .i ku'i mi pilno le se cusku be do

Compelled by me translating, I would say "pagbu" instead of "porpi". But I use what you said. (The discussion was about the translation of the IRC nick "fracture".)

<xod> da'i trina lo nalglico selbangu

<xorxes> i a'o go'i

Xod: Suppose we'd attract speakers of non-English languages.

Jorge: I hope so.

(A discussion about the lojban-es mailing list.)

i zo su'i binxo da'i zo sumji
The word "su'i" would become "sumji".


da'i used outside of implications

lonu da'i la betis. klama le te salci cu vajni lenu la bil. gleki

Betty's coming to the celebration was important for Bill being happy.

mi na jimpe le krinu be le si'o ko'a goi le da'i cecmu pe la and. joi la xorxes cu nitcu le'i catni selcmi
I don't understand why And and Jorge's supposed community needs the official membership organisations.


to da'i da na djica le nu le zgike kagni cu ricfu vau po'o toi
No-one would want music companies to be rich, and nothing else.



here(external link) and here(external link).


Proposed Definitions And Examples










































The most contentious part of this section seems to be the definition of da'i. da'i is different from the other discursives, because it may be irrealis — the definition seems to affect the truth-functional meaning of the sentence in which it occurs.


da'i is sanctioned as a marker of the antecedent in subjunctive clauses. Prior usage that ties da'i to the consequent of the subjunctive clause is deemed erroneous.



The original document is available at http://tiki.lojban.org/tiki/BPFK+Section%3A+Discursives