# Proposed Definitions

ze'a
Duration. It indicates that the event lasts for a certain time. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the duration.

mi ba ze'a stali
I'll stay for a while.

mi tigni ze'a lo masti be li mupimu bu'u la kamogauas zei banlyxotli tu'i la kamogauas pe lo pongu'e
I performed for five and a half months at the Kamogawa Grand Hotel in Kamogawa, Japan.

ze'e
Unbounded duration. It indicates that the event lasts for an unlimited time. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the unbounded duration.

mi'o se kampu lo steci te jorne poi mi na ka'e ciksi i ju'o mi'o ze'e ba pedysi'u i ju'ocu'i ze'e pu go'i
We share a special bond, one I can't explain. I know we will be friends forever. Or maybe we have been already.

i ze'e lo mokca ko'a simlu lo ka fulta ga'uva lo gutci be li ji'i renono
...and for an instant that lasted forever, he seemed to float about two hundred feet up

ze'i
Short duration. It indicates that the event lasts for a short time. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the short duration.

ji'asai mi ze'i jinvi lo du'u sa'u mi xruti le solji cedra be lo xagze'a ke rokci zgike
I even thought for a jiffy that I was just returning to the golden era of progressive rock music.

ko'a ba lo nu ze'i lo nanca no'u li 1622 ctuca fi lo saskrfilosofia fi'o ckule la vaisenburg noi ca du la karlsburg tu'i la transilvanias cu vrici litru lifri fau lo nu selfu so'o tutra nobli
After being for a short year (1622) professor of philosophy at the Gymnasium of Weissenburg (now Karlsburg) in Transylvania, he led a wandering life in the service of various territorial nobles.

ze'u
Long duration. It indicates that the event lasts for a long of time. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the long duration.

ri'a ma lo je'erma'a cu ze'u cando gi'ebabo te jetce
Why do volcanoes sit for a long time and then finally erupt?

ze'u lo cacra la mauglis cu vreta seru'u lo so'o djine ize'abo la kaas noi lo stedu cu cando cpana le loldi cu pensi ro da poi ky viska gi'e djuno co'a lo djedi poi ky cliva lo sovda
For a long hour Mowgli lay back among the coils, while Kaa, his head motionless on the ground, thought of all that he had seen and known since the day he came from the egg.

ve'a
Spatial extent. It indicates that the event extends over a certain region. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the region.

ro mirli ro drata mirli cu frica lo ka se panci i my ba'arpu'i lo tutra be my ta'i lo nu my ve'a cliva lo panci be my
Every deer smells different from every other deer. They mark their territory by leaving their scent throughout a certain area.

mi zifre lo nu curmi lo nu le nanla cu jai fenki ve'a lo tumla kramu be li so'u i go'i secau lo nu xanka lo nu ny klama lo mokau jarbu
I can let the boys go crazy over a few acres of land without wondering which zip code they've wandered off to.

ve'e
Unbounded spatial extent. It indicates that the event extends over an unlimited region. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the unbounded region.

lo skepre cu jinvi lo du'u lo ratygri poi sarcu lo nu se marji lo selci pilka kei e seni'ibo lo krasi be lo nu jmive cu zasti ve'e lo kensa
Scientists believe the molecules needed to make a cell's membrane, and thus for the origin of life, are all over space

ca lo nu do dei tcidu kei lo tarci cu tolcanci gi'e mrobi'o vau ve'e lo munje i pamei fasnu gi'e pagbu lo bratce pruce poi munje nu fesrefpi'o
As you read this, stars are emerging and dying all over the Universe, individual episodes in an huge process of cosmic recycling.

ve'i
Small spatial extent. It indicates that the event extends over a small region. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the small region.

ta'e lo mabrnmustela cu ve'i po'o kalte ijeve'ibo my ji'a se jersi lo djica
Usually weasels hunt only throughout a small area, and within these boundaries they, too, are avidly pursued.

le sanga pu ca'o plipe ve'i le tsina
The singer was hopping all over the tiny stage.

ve'u
Large spatial extent. It indicates that the event extends over a large region. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the large region.

le skuro be le loldi cu ve'u se ganse
The cracks in the soil were observed over a large zone.

le balmalsi sagbe'e cu gidva fi piso'e le ritli i le voksa be le sanga cu se minra ve'u le malsi
The cathedral choir leads most of the service, and the singers' voices echo throughout the huge sanctuary.

vi'a
Two-dimensional spatial extent. It indicates that the event extends across a surface. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the surface.

ta'i ma lo resrgeko cu nipsti da ca lo nu muvdu vi'a da
How do gecko lizards unstick themselves as they move across a surface?

vi'e
Four-dimensional spatio-temporal extent. It indicates that the event extends throughout a space-time volume. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the space-time volume.

vi'i
One-dimensional spatial extent. It indicates that the event extends along a line. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the line.

ca lo cerni be lo soldei po'u li 1961 pi'e 8 pi'e 13 lo gunka co'a zbasu lo mitre be li ci galtu ke sligu bitmu vi'i le korbi be le softo pagbu be le tcadu
On Sunday morning, August 13, 1961, workers began building a three-meter-high concrete wall along the border of the Soviet sector of the city.

vi'u
Three-dimensional spatial extent. It indicates that the event extends throughout a volume. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the volume.

lo risna cu sluji rango fi lo nu pambe lo ciblu vi'u lo xadni
The heart is the muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.

za
Time distance. It indicates that the event is separated in time from the speaker or reference point. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the separation distance.

lo brogu'e pulji cu cusku lo se du'u py cpacu lo datni be lo cumki nungunta pu lo nunspoja za lo cacra
Israeli police said they received intelligence about a possible attack an hour before the explosion.

zi
Short time distance. It indicates that the event is separated by a short time from the speaker or reference point. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the short separation distance.

zu
Long time distance. It indicates that the event is separated by a long time from the speaker or reference point. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the long separation distance.

va
Space distance. It indicates that the event is separated in space from the speaker or reference point. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the separation distance.

vi
Short space distance. It indicates that the event is separated by a short space from the speaker or reference point. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the short separation distance.

vu
Long space distance. It indicates that the event is separated by a long space from the speaker or reference point. When tagging a sumti, the sumti specifies the long separation distance.

## Formal definitions

 ze'a fi'o krafamtei ze'e fi'o cimni krafamtei ze'i fi'o cmalu krafamtei ze'u fi'o barda krafamtei ve'a fi'o selku'e ve'e fi'o cimni selku'e ve'i fi'o cmalu selku'e ve'u fi'o barda selku'e vi'a fi'o relselcimde selku'e vi'e fi'o vonselcimde selku'e vi'i fi'o pavyselcimde selku'e vi'u fi'o cibyselcimde selku'e za fi'o temci be lo manri zi fi'o cmalu temci be lo manri zu fi'o barda temci be lo manri va fi'o tersei be lo manri vi fi'o cmalu tersei be lo manri vu fi'o barda tersei be lo manri

## Notes

• The definitions of ZEhA, VEhA and VIhA basically agree with those in CLL and the ma'oste. The only difference is that the keyword &quot;medium&quot; has been removed from the -a forms, so that a basic form is available when the size of the interval is not particularly significant.

• The definitions of ZI and VA agree with the canon in their basic meaning (again with &quot;medium&quot; removed from the -a forms), but differ in the interpretation of the tagged sumti. Neither CLL nor the ma'oste specify the meaning of a tagged sumti with ZI, but the idea is that they work analogously to VA. VA in CLL tags the reference point instead of the distance as proposed here. In the ma'oste, two options are given for VA: they either tag the reference point: &quot;a short/medium/long distance from...&quot;, or they tag the actual position of the event, as away from the speaker: &quot;here/there/yonder at...&quot;. This last possibility is not mentioned in CLL.

• The rationale for using ZI and VA to tag the distance is that their function is precisely to indicate the measure of separation of the event from the speaker or reference point. There is no other convenient way of specifying the measure of separation, while there are plenty of other ways to indicate the reference point: for example PU, FAhA and KI.

## Impact

• Ancient usages with the &quot;there at...&quot; meaning are not contemplated. These are wrong both by CLL and by this proposal:

http://balance.wiw.org/~jkominek/lojban/9104/msg00066.html
le cribe cu cupra lei kalci va le tricu ciste
All-of-the-at-least-one-thing-I-describe-as a-bear [past]
produced the-mass-of feces there-at the tree-type-of system.
The bear shat in the woods.

http://balance.wiw.org/~jkominek/lojban/9608/msg00012.html
[English (by Guy Lee)]
; you, Tityrus, cool in shade,
Are teaching woods to echo lovely Amaryllis.
[Lojban]
.i do doi tityrus. noi nalkurji
va le ctino cu ctuca lei ricfoi fi lenu sance minra la poi melbi
.amarilis.
[English Don Wiggins]
; you, Titerus, who does not care, there in the shade,
teach the forests the echo of Amarili the Beautiful. [...]

http://balance.wiw.org/~jkominek/lojban/9305/msg00109.html
From: David Twery
.i mi pu tirna ko'a va le vacri po'e lo nicte ca mi tirna lenu lo mamta cu
selsanga co vrucau seva'u lo verba poi ke'a selraktu je fengu vi leka manku
I heard it in the air of one night when I listened to a mother
singing softly to a child restless and angry in the darkness.

• The widespread use of vi instead of bu'u as the space equivalent of ca becomes invalidated. There are lots of these, here are just a few examples:

http://www.lojban.org/files/texts/mildew {vi lo purdi}, {vi loi cnino stuzi}, {vi le rokci}
http://www.lojban.org/files/texts/cukta2.html {vi lo minra}
http://www.lojban.org/files/texts/moser {vi le lisri}, {vi le dei jufygri}, {vi lo jibni be lo jufra fanmo}, {vi le ckana}
http://www.lojban.org/texts/translations/alice/alice.html {vi le selmacygu'e}
http://www.lojban.org/files/texts/ckafybarja/ckafybarja2 {vi le barja}, {vile ckafybarja}, {vi le tcadu}
tu'a le cukta {vi le tcadu}, {vi le klina}
http://www.lojban.org/files/texts/luther_king {vi le xunre cmama'a be la djordjas}, {vi le mu'a .ua la misisipis. jectypau}
http://www.lojban.org/files/texts/cukta3.html {vi le ckafybarja}, {vi le purci}
My version of The Book {vi le loldi}, {vi le cukta fanmo}, {vi le kunti foldi}
le nanmu kujo'u le since {vi lei pagbu be le dinju}, {vi le me la ga'i drurin. zdani}, {vi le srasu}, {vi le midju darno}, {vi le na'e ciblu}, {vi le cukta kumfa}, {vi le dijlu'a}
http://www.lojban.org/files/texts/ckafybarja1 {vi le jupku'a}
http://www.lojban.org/files/texts/maxwell_tales {vi le galtu be lo zdani}, {vi le dizlo be le zdani}, {vi le zdani}
http://www.lojban.org/texts/translations/drbible/drbible_10.html {vi le barda cmana}, {vi le mipri pagbu be le cmana}, {vi lo xrulrlili'u}
Old MacDonald {vi le cange}

• Some uses of vi with the &quot;a short distance from...&quot; meaning:

tu'a le cukta {vi le xekri je ctile rirxe}
le nanmu kujo'u le since {vi la nil}
http://www.lojban.org/files/texts/ckafybarja1 {vi le ragve kojna}
lapoi pelxu ku'o trajynobli {vi le remoi jubme}
Meeting other lojbanists {vi le se xabju be do}

• Some uses that become validated

http://www.lojban.org/texts/translations/alice/alice_9.html {zi lo mokca}, {zi lo mentu be li ji'ire}, {zi lo mleca be lo temci}, {za lo drata mentu}
Le Petit Prince {za lo nanca be li xa}
Le Petit Prince 2 {vu lo minli be li ki'o}
http://www.lojban.org/texts/translations/alice/alice_7.html {va lo mitre be li su'o}

## History

Information Version
Thu 21 of Aug, 2014 10:23 GMT Ilmen from 95.210.209.219 Modifying the word links.
Thu 21 of Aug, 2014 10:20 GMT Ilmen from 95.210.209.219 Modifying the word links.
Sun 08 of Jun, 2014 19:23 GMT mukti from 216.194.27.154
Fri 30 of May, 2014 09:16 GMT eyeonus from 65.129.76.155 Fixed "long of time".
Wed 28 of May, 2014 10:45 GMT pne from 194.25.30.13 ;
Wed 28 of May, 2014 09:20 GMT selpa'i from 84.175.79.206
Tue 19 of Oct, 2010 01:26 GMT lindarthebard from 32.172.136.135
Sat 16 of Oct, 2010 20:30 GMT lindarthebard from 166.191.217.61
Tue 07 of Sep, 2010 08:08 GMT eyeonus from 96.18.103.113
Tue 07 of Sep, 2010 05:48 GMT eyeonus from 96.18.103.113
Tue 07 of Sep, 2010 05:48 GMT eyeonus from 96.18.103.113
Tue 07 of Sep, 2010 05:46 GMT eyeonus from 96.18.103.113
Tue 07 of Sep, 2010 05:41 GMT eyeonus from 96.18.103.113
Tue 07 of Sep, 2010 05:36 GMT eyeonus from 96.18.103.113
Sat 17 of Apr, 2010 20:04 GMT xorxes from 201.253.86.169
Fri 16 of Apr, 2010 00:39 GMT xorxes from 201.253.86.169
Wed 12 of Nov, 2008 13:05 GMT xorxes from 200.123.104.44 fix typo: zu -> vu
Mon 12 of Jul, 2004 21:22 GMT xorxes from 200.49.74.2
Sun 11 of Jul, 2004 01:46 GMT xorxes from 200.43.74.32
Sun 11 of Jul, 2004 01:33 GMT xorxes from 200.43.74.32
Tue 29 of Jun, 2004 23:59 GMT xorxes from 200.43.213.86