Evidential. Used to express anticipation as the source of information or idea. This word comprises a scale, along with "ba'a cu'i" and "ba'a nai".
- I anticipate
ba'a seems to be used in a mostly non-temporal sense. That is, it is rarely used to express "I expect that X will happen", but rather something like "I presume that X would be the case". A borderline-temporal case is to interpret it as "I presume that X will be the answer to my question".
ba'anai does seem to be unambiguously used to refer to things in the past.
- ba'a do bazu djuno fi ro djedi
- I expect that in the far future, you will know about every day.
- .ua .i ba'anai
- Oh yeah, I remember now.
- .i y xu ro pipybanfi cu respa - ba'a na mabrua
- Are frogs reptiles? I don't expect them to be mammals.
- .i lenu mi joi la tal. puzi casnu ti cu mukti lenu mi te preti fo do .i ba'a loi mlatu loi gerku cu zmadu leka kukte .i xu tugni
- Me and Tal's recent discussion prompted me to ask you. I expect cats to taste better than dogs. Agree?
- ma se xabju do vi la astn - ba'a vi la ubuty. xabju
- Where near Austin do you live? Probably near UT.
- ba'a do xabju le jecrsautkarolaina
- You probably live in South Carolina.
I rule that usage to be in error, and that the temporal interpretation should remain/become the official interpretation.
Evidential. Used to express experience as the source of information or idea. This word comprises a scale, along with "ba'a" and "ba'a nai".
- I experience
- ba'acu'i cumki fa le nu mi sutra bacru ta'i tu'a lo nu lo denpa cu jbini ro valsi
- In my experience, it is possible for me to speak quickly with pauses between every word.
Evidential. Used to express memory/recollection as the source of information or idea. This word comprises a scale, along with "ba'a" and "ba'a cu'i".
- ko tcidu .i ba'anai do pante vu'e le za'i le banrglico cu bangu le jboskepre
- Read it. I recall that you objected to the fact that the lojbanologists discussed in English.
Evidential. Used to mark a performative/speech act, that is, an utterance that is true because the speaker says so.
- I define
- ca'e le mi tubnu cu na'ebo marna tubnu
- I say my pipe is a non-pot pipe.
- ca'e la bais cu mulno
- BAI is hereby done.
- ca'e le re do cu simxu speni
- I hereby pronounce that the two of you are mutual spouses. I pronounce you husband and wife.
Evidential. Used to express other (stated or unstated) information or ideas as the source of information or idea. (cf. selni'i, ni'ikri)
- I conclude
- ja'o mi tolnelci le gejbirje
- So, I dislike root beer.
- ja'o do na prenu citka prenu
- Then you cannot be a cannibal.
- ja'o do gento
- Then you must be Argentinian.
- ja'o do se bangu le glico .e la lojban .enai lo drata
- So you know only English and Lojban.
- za'a cladu carvi .i ja'o carmi carvi
- I can hear the loud sound of rain. So it must be raining heavily.
- ro bu'a zo'u le ka bu'a cu xamgu .inaja la cev traji le ka bu'a .i le ka zasti cu xamgu .i ja'o la cev traji le ka zasti
- Of all good properties, God is the entity that has the most of it. Existence is a good property. Hence, God is the entity that is the most existent of all.
Evidential. Used to express a non-specific/elliptical source of information or idea.
- I state
- ju'a loi xalka cu danfu .i mi na morji le preti
- Alcohol is the answer. I can't remember the question.
- ju'a ba'e ro da cu se senpi .ei
- Everything should be doubted, I say.
Evidential. Used to express cultural context/myth/custom as the source of information or idea.
- I know culturally
- I culturally know
- .i tatpi joi xagji .i ka'u ca le cabdei mi na .ei citka je pinxe mu'i tu'a le lijda
- I'm tired and hungry. Tomorrow I mustn't eat or drink for religious reasons.
- .i ka'u so'a nanmu cu xebni .iku'i mi certu le ka .o'o zei cinmo
- Almost all men hate something, but I am very good at being patient.
Evidential. Used to express opinion as the source of information or idea.
- I opine
- pe'i le nu ma'a na frili kakne le nu benji la nomoi cu mukti .ei le nu ma'a na troci le nu benji ja vecnu le remoi
- In my opinion, the fact that we can't easily send the zeroth one should be a reason for us not to try to send and sell the second one.
Evidential. Used to express postulate/assumption/presumption as the source of information or idea.
- I postulate
- I presume
- I assume
- I take it that
- ru'a no le prenu cu nanca lo zmadu be li 25
- Presumably, none of the people are more than 25 years old.
- .i ru'a mi milxe leka bilma
- I am slightly ill, I assume.
Evidential. Used to express internal experience, such as a dream, vision, or personal revelation, as the source of information or idea.
- I know internally
- se'o tunta le mi tamji .i da poi palci cu klama jibni
- I know internally that it stabbed my thumb. Something evil was coming close.
Evidential. Used to express other (stated or unstated) information as the source of the information or idea that is a generalization of the former. This word comprises a scale, along with "su'a nai".
- I generalize
- .i le mi skami se tcana prenu cu krici le se go'i
- My server people believe that.
- su'a le skami se tcana prenu cu so'eroi bebna
- Which goes to show that server people are stupid most of the time.
Evidential. Used to express other (stated or unstated) information as the source of the information or idea that is a particularization of the former. This word comprises a scale, along with "su'a".
- I particularize
- mi pu te cusku lo nu go'i .i su'anai samselmri
- I was told that. E-mail, in particular.
Evidential. Used to express hearsay/relayed information as the source of information or idea.
- I hear
- ti'e lo bangu cu kensa vidru
- They say that language is a virus from outer space.
- ti'e le rokci pe la titan cu bisli jenai rokci
- I hear that the "rocks" on Titan are actually made of ice, not rock.
Evidential. Used to express direct observation or perception as the source of information or idea. Said perception may be visual, but need not be.
- I observe
- .i le do cmene cu za'a xelso
- I see that you have a Greek name.
- .i za'a le ca me la taral. cu cnino
- Apparently the present Taral is new.
The template for "ju'a" seems to have got slots for scalars by mistake. These have been removed.
"ba'a" is now explicitly temporal, which is in accordance with the CLL, but invalidates much usage.
Added clarificationary note that "za'a" is not restricted to visual observation.