BPFK Section: sumtcita Formants

Proposed definitions

cmavo: fi'o (FIhO)

Proposed Definition

Converts a selbri into a tag. The tag modifies a sentence or connects two sentences. When modifying a sentence, the tag can take an argument that further specifies it and which fills the first argument of the converted selbri.

Proposed Tag

See Also

  • {fe'u}

Proposed Keywords

  • selbri to modal
  • nonce modal/sumti tag

Usage Examples

doi .deivid. do no roi klama lo cinri fi'o kansa mi
David, you never come to interesting places with me.
lo citno nanla cu gleki catlu lo kacma fi'o se jbini lo pendo be ny
The young boy looked happily into the camera, standing among his friends.
do facki fi la lojban. fi'o tadji fe'u ma
You discovered Lojban by what method?

cmavo: fe'u (FEhU)

Proposed Tag

Proposed Definition

Terminator for FIhO.

See Also

  • {fi'o}

Proposed Keywords

  • terminator

Usage Examples

lo fi'o kansa fe'u klama cu gleki
The accompanied goer is happy.

Formal definitions

broda fi'o brode ko'a broda .i joi ko'a brode

The connection between the two relationships is {joi}, not {je}, because the two relationships are not independent of each other. They are inextricably linked, but what exactly the link is is not specified and
can vary with context.

fi'o selbri zo'u sentence lo nu sentence cu jai selbri
fi'o selbri sumti zo'u sentence lo nu sentence cu jai selbri fai sumti
fi'o selbri gi sentence1 gi sentence2 lo nu sentence1 cu selbri fai lo nu sentence2
sentence1 i fi'o selbri fe'u bo sentence2 lo nu sentence1 cu jai selbri fai lo nu sentence2

Some selbri with a short fi'o-form:

BAI BRODA BAI = fi'o BRODA se BAI = fi'o se BRODA te BAI = fi'o te BRODA ve BAI = fi'o ve BRODA xe BAI = fi'o xe BRODA
ba'i basti replaced by instead of
bai bapli compelled by compelling
bau bangu in language in language of
be'i benji sent by transmitting sent to with transmit origin transmitted via
ca'i catni by authority of with authority over
cau claxu lacked by without
ci'e ciste in system with system function of system components
ci'o cinmo felt by feeling emotion
ci'u ckilu on the scale on scale measuring
cu'u cusku as said by expressing as told to expressed in medium
de'i detri dated on the same date as
di'o diklo at the locus of at specific locus
do'e co'e vaguely related to
du'i dunli as much as equal to
du'o djuno according to knowing facts knowing about under epistemology
fa'e fatne reverse of in reversal of
fau fasnu in the event of
fi'e finti created by creating work created for purpose
ga'a zgana to observer observing observed by means observed under cond.
gau gasnu with agent as agent in doing
ja'e jalge resulting in results because of
ja'i javni by rule by rule prescribing
ji'e jimte up to limit as a limit of
ji'o jitro under direction controlling
ji'u jicmu based on supporting
ka'a klama gone to by with destination with origin via route by transport mode
ka'i krati represented by on behalf of
kai ckaji characterizing with property
ki'i ckini as relation of related to with relation
ki'u krinu justified by with justified result
koi korbi bounded by as boundary of bordering
ku'u kulnu in culture in culture of
la'u klani as quantity of in quantity
le'a klesi in category as category of defined by quality
li'e lidne led by leading
ma'e marji of material made from material in material form of
ma'i manri in ref. frame as a standard for
mau zmadu exceeded by more than
me'a mleca undercut by less than
me'e cmene with name as a name for as a name to
mu'i mukti motivated by motive therefore
mu'u mupli exemplified by as an example of
ni'i nibli entailed by entails
pa'a panra in addition to similar to similar in pattern similar by standard
pa'u pagbu with component as a part of
pi'o pilno used by using tool
po'i porsi in the sequence sequenced by rule
pu'a pluka pleased by in order to please
pu'e pruce by process processing from processing into passing through stages
ra'a srana pertained to by concerning
ra'i krasi from source as an origin of
rai traji with superl. superlative in at extreme superlative among
ri'a rinka caused by causing
ri'i lifri experienced by experiencing
sau sarcu requiring necessarily for necessarily under cond.
si'u sidju aided by assisting in
ta'i tadji by method as a method for
tai tamsmi as a form of in form in form similar to
ti'i stidi suggested by suggesting suggested to
ti'u tcika with time at the time of
tu'i stuzi with site as location of
va'o vanbi under cond. as conditions for
va'u xamgu benefiting from with beneficiary
zau zanru approved by approving
zu'e zukte with actor with means to goal with goal
pu selpru (se purci) in the past of
ca selcabna (se cabna) in the present of
ba selbalvi (se balvi) in the future of
ba'o selmulcabna (se mulno cabna) complete when
ca'o selra'i (se ranji) ongoing when
pu'o selfaubrecabna
(se fasnu bredi cabna)
about to happen when
za'o selmulre'i (se mulno renvi) still happening beyond completion when
co'a krasi from
co'u fanmo until
mo'u mulfa'o (mulno fanmo) completing when
co'i selmokca (se mokca) at point in time
de'a dicra interrupted at
di'a toldicra (to'e dicra) resuming at
bu'u selzva (se zvati) at
ca'u selcra (se crane) in front of
ti'a selti'e (se trixe) behind
zu'a selzunle (se zunle) on the left of
ri'u selpritu (se pritu) on the right of
ga'u selgapru (se gapru) above
ni'a selni'a (se cnita) below
ne'i selne'i (se nenri) within
ru'u selsru (se sruri) around
pa'o selgre (se pagre) through
ne'a selzvajbi (se zvajbi) near
te'e selkoi (se korbi) bordering
re'o selyla'i (se lamji) adjacent
fa'a farna towards
to'o tolfa'a (to'e farna) away from
zo'i seltolragve (se to'e ragve) this side of
ze'o selragve (se ragve) across
zo'a selylamgre (se lenji pagre) tangential
be'a selberti (se berti) north of
ne'u selsnanu (se snanu) south of
du'a selstuna (se stuna) east of
vu'a selstici (se stici) west of


  • Tags have two related but distinct functions, as unary bridi operators and as binary bridi operators.

  • As unary operators, they can take an argument that specifies the tag.

  • The sense of {fi'o selbri} as a bridi operator has to be defined for each selbri. In many cases it will correspond to the sentence filling the x2 or some other place of selbri, but this only works when selbri will admit a sentence as one of its arguments. A general orientative rule might be that the sentence fills the first place (after the x1, which is already accounted for) that will admit a sentence. If there is no place that will admit a sentence, then the relationship is a vague one.

  • The negation unary operator, NA/NA KU, can also be expressed as {fi'o natfe} or {fi'o natfe lo fatci}. For example {mi fi'o natfe fe'u klama le zarci} that I go to the market is contradicted by the facts" {mi na klama le zarci} I don't go to the market''.

  • Bridi operators in general are not commutative, so the order in which tags appear with respect to negation, quantifiers, connectives or other tags matters. The general rule is that a bridi operator has scope over the operators that follow and is within the scope of preceding operators.

  • As binary operators, only some tags are meaningful. For example {pu gi ... gi ...} and {ri'a gi ... gi ...}, but not {bau gi ... gi ...} or {ka'a gi ... gi ...}. In general, {fi'o selbri} will be meaningful as a connective if the x1 of selbri is meaningful with a sentence.


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Created by xorxes. Last Modification: Thursday 21 of August, 2014 11:27:06 GMT by Ilmen.