When a word is used enough, or well-enough known, that you don't need
to be told that a vombatu is a mammal, a merlanu a fish, or a santuri
a stringed instrument, then you can drop the prefix (mabrn-, finpr-, jgitr-)
and use a type 4 fu'ivla.
Creating type 4 fu'ivla is more art and less procedure than type 3, because
the foreign language phonology interacts not only with the Lojban phonology,
but also with the rules of well-formed fu'ivla. Sometimes a foreign word
refuses to be fit into the fu'ivla mold.
Often, but not always, the type 4 fu'ivla for a plant or animal is the common
name, while the type 3 is the word used by scientists. What is mabrnmakropode
to the zoologist, to the common man is just kanguru. But not always:
a finprgado is a finprgado.
To make a type 4 fu'ivla, start with the transliterated form of the foreign
word, and do the following steps in no particular order until you get a well-formed fu'ivla. You can test words for kamfu'ivla with the vlatai program, which is part of the jbofi'e suite.
- If the word ends in a consonant, drop it or add a vowel.
- If the word begins in a vowel, drop it or add a consonant. But if the vowel is followed by a non-initial consonant pair, as in antimoni, keep it.
- If the word begins with a non-initial consonant pair, change it, prepend a vowel, insert a vowel, or exchange them.
- If there is no consonant pair in the first five letters (not counting apostrophes), put another consonant in or drop a vowel.
- If the word falls apart or has lujvo form because the second consonant cluster is an initial pair, exchange the two consonants or change one of them.
- If the word is not a well-formed fu'ivla for any other reason, fiddle around with it.
There are several short word forms that are well-formed fu'ivla forms:
- VC/CV: alga. otpi was proposed for a lidless bottle.
- VCCV: iglu.
- CCVVCV: Many of these words denote nationalities or regions, such as tci'ile, tce'exo, kri'ibe, and bre'one, but glauka is an owl.
- CCVCVCV: platesa, krotalu, spinaki
- CVC/CVCV: kanguru, vombatu, zirkoni, vultura, falkone, salmone, magjaro, tinceme, kapsiku, laktuka, polgosu
- CCVC/CVCV: mlongena, skalduna, mlibdena, tcimpazi
- CVVC/CVCV: bauksita
Here is how I formed some of these words:
tcimpazi: I started with "chimpanzee", which transliterates as "tcimpanzi", but
that is a slinku'i: "pa tcimpanzi" lexes as "patcimpanzi", which might mean a
child who wets himself every time he complains. "cimpanzi" is no better; it's
a lujvo meaning a wet child. "tcipanzi" is a tool-child, whatever that might be.
"tcimpazi" is a well-formed fu'ivla.
skalduna: The Basques call their language Euskera or Euskara, depending on
dialect, and a Basque speaker (they define membership in their people by
speaking the language) euskaldun. I dropped "eu" from the beginning and added
"a" (the Basque definite article) to the end to get "skalduna".